Application, Advantages and Disadvantages of Cavitation

Application, Advantages and Disadvantages of Cavitation

Read: What is Cavitation?

Advantages and application of cavitation

  • Cavitation found application in ultrasonic cleaning baths. It has sufficient force to overcome the adhesive force between molecules of impurity and clean surface.
  • Controlled cavitation phenomenon can be used to enhance a chemical reaction.
  • Cavitation process uses to homogenize and mix the suspended particles in colloidal liquids.
  • Cavitation used to improve the performance of high-speed marine vessels and projectiles.
  • Cavitation in wastewater treatment - extreme cavitation use to break down pollutants and organic molecules.

What Is Cavitation, And Its Effects And Precautions Against Cavitation?

propeller cavitation image

What is cavitation?

Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation of a vapour bubble in flowing liquid where the pressure falls below vapour pressure and sudden collapsing of this bubble at high-pressure region. Cavitation usually the result of rapid changes of pressure of the liquid. The cavitation cause erosion of surface as well as noise and vibrations. The cavitation occurs in pumps, orifice, venturi meter, control valves, impellers, etc.

What Is Meant By Vapour Pressure? Relation between Vapour Pressure and Temperature

what is meant by vapor pressure?

What is vapour pressure?

Consider vaporization of a liquid (for example we take water) or solid in a closed vessel. At equilibrium the amount of water evaporating equal to amount of water condensing ( i.e. no more evaporation of water). Then the vapour pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by the vapour on the surface of liquid at in equilibrium condition. The equilibrium vapour pressure is a relative measure of liquid's evaporation rate. The substance with high vapour pressure at normal temperature is considered as highly volatile.

What Is Capillary Action? Expression for Capillary Rise/ Fall?

capillary rise and fall

What is meant by capillary?

Capillary is a phenomenon of rising or falling of liquid surface in a small tube compared to the adjacent normal liquid level. The rise of liquid in tube known as capillary rise while depression of fluid level is known as capillary fall. Capillary depend upon density of liquid, surface tension of liquid and the diameter of the tube. The example for capillarity: blotting paper absorbing ink/water, chromatography, water absorption by sponges, soil water rises to surface by capillarity.

Governor Controlling Force and Controlling Force Diagram

Governor Controlling Force and Controlling Force Diagram

Controlling force

When governor running each ball of the governor subjected an inward pull. Consider a governor running at a steady speed, then the inward force acting on the rotating governor ball is known as controlling force. Controlling force of governor is equal and opposite to the centrifugal reaction.
Controlling Force, Fc = mω2r

In porter governor controlling force is provided by the weight of sleeve and balls. In spring controlled governor (eg: Hartnell governor) controlling force provided by spring and weights.

What Is Meant By Effort And Power Of A Governor?

effort power governor

Read: What Is A Governor?

Governor effort and governor power are the tools that can be used to compare different type of governor.

Effort of Governor

Effort of governor is defined as the mean force exerted at the sleeve of governor for a given percentage of change in speed of spindle or lift of sleeve. When governor running at constant speed, the force exerted on the sleeve is zero. When the governor speed changes the spindle moves up or down to new equilibrium position. There will be a force that prevents this movement of sleeve. The resistance is equal to Effort of governor. This resistance varies from maximum to minimum as the sleeve moves to the new equilibrium position.