What is Sintering? Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages of Sintering

metal_piece

What is sintering?

Sintering is a thermal treatment technique of compacting and forming of solid material using heat and pressure without melting the main constituent (or without heating it to its liquefaction temperature). It is basically atomic diffusion. It will happen in any material at any temperature above absolute zero, but it is faster in higher temperature. When the heat is applied to powder compact, the average grain size increases, reducing the porosity and the compact gets densified. This basic phenomenon is known as sintering.

Electron Beam Machining EBM Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

EBM applications advantages

🔗EBM operating principle and working

EBM applications

EBM now found application in many industrial equipments. Special characteristics of EBM, such as high-resolution long depth of field, make them suited for specific application. Other special characterises are their extraordinary high energy, controllability and compatibility with high vacuum. It also has the ability to catalyse many chemical reactions. EBM is used to cut and hole making on thin material. Hole drilling is the main application of EBM (e.g. wire drawing dies, making of the fine gas orifice). It can cut thin hole and slots in metals, plastics and ceramics of any hardness. It finds application in food, chemical, aerospace, textile, and automobile industries.

Electron Beam Machining EBM Construction, Operating Principle and Working

electron beam machining equipment

Components and working of EBM

Electron-beam machining is a kind of machining process by using high-velocity electron beam. It is similar to the electron beam welding machine. In EBM, electrons are accelerated to high velocity as half of the light speed, then it is impinged to work material surface. When the electron beam impact on the surface of work material, the high kinetic energy of the electron converted in to thermal energy, it is then melt and finally evaporate the metal.

Ultrasonic Machining USM - Applications Advantages and Disadvantages

blue stones

🔗Working of ultrasonic machining equipment USM
🔗Factors affecting ultrasonic machining

Applications of Ultrasonic Machining USM

  • USM technology is used to the machining of brittle material and material of high hardness due to the microcracking mechanism.
  • USM can be used to drill holes of straight and curved axes.
  • For drilling holes in wire drawing dies.
  • Threading of hard material and alloys by rotating and translating the movement of either tool or workpiece.
  • Unlike other metal removal process, such as chemical, thermal processes, USM method does not harm the physical properties of workpiece and it maintains crystallographic properties. So they are used for machining of more brittle and high sensitive material.

Ultrasonic Machining USM Process Parameters and Factors Affecting Ultrasonic Machining Rate

Process Parameters and Factors Affecting Ultrasonic Machining
🔗Working of ultrasonic machining equipment
🔗USM applications, advantages and limitations

Process variable and their effect on the ultrasonic machining

The machining rate and accuracy of USM depend on many factors. Diagram shows some of the factors that affect the USM.

USM Machining Rate

The cutting rate in USM depends on

1. Vibration frequency and amplitude: The frequency of vibration is directly proportional to the material removal rate. The increase in frequency increase the number blows by the tool per second and cut more material from surface. For many materials, the material removal rate is proportional to the square of amplitude of vibration.

Ultrasonic Machining USM Equipment Elements and Working

ultrasonic machining
Read: Abrasive jet machining (AJM) construction and working
🔗Electron beam machining EBM construction, operating principle and working

Ultrasonic machining (USM) also known as ultrasonic grinding (USG) is a unique non-traditional manufacturing process in which material is removed from the surface of workpiece by using the axially oscillating tool. The tool is vibrating at high frequency and low amplitude in the presence of fine abrasive particles. USM is used in precision machining of hard and brittle material. It can achieve dimensional accuracy up to ±0.005mm.