Different Types of Cutting Tools Materials and Their Properties
There are many types of cutting process done in different conditions. In such conditions along with the general requirements of the cutting tool, they need some unique properties. To achieve this properties the cutting tools are made up of different material. The material chosen for a particular application depends on the material to be machined, type of machining, quantity and quality of production.
According to the material used the tools are classified into
- Carbon tool steel
- High speed steel tool (HSS)
- Cemented carbide
- Ceramics tool
- Cubic boron nitride Tool (CBN)
- Diamond tool
Carbon tool steelCarbon tool steel is one of the inexpensive metal cutting tools used for the low-speed machining operation. These plain carbon steel cutting tool have the composition of 0.6-1.5% carbon and very small amount of (less than 0.5 %) Mn, Si. Other metal like Cr, V are added to change the hardness and grain size. High carbon steels are abrasion resistant and have the ability to maintain sharp cutting edge. Carbon tool steels possess good machinability. This material loses their hardness rapidly at a temperature about 250°C. Therefore, it can’t use high-temperature application. It does not prefer in a modern machining operation.
Carbon steel tool is used in twist drills, milling tools, turning and forming tools, used for soft material such as brass, aluminum magnesium, etc.
Temperature - 450°C
Hardness – up to HRC 65
High-speed steel (HSS)
To find out the effect of alloying material in steel click here
Surface treatment used in the HSS
Super finishing - Reduce friction
Nitriding - Increase wear resistance
Chromium electroplating - Reduce friction
Oxidation - Reduce friction
High-speed steel tools are used in drills, milling cutters, single point lathe tools, broaches.
Cutting speed range - 30-50 m/min
Temperature - 650°C
Hardness – up to HRC 67
T-Type - Tungsten predominant type
M-Type - Molybdenum dominant type
Cemented carbide tool and cermet
Cutting speed range - 60-200m/min
Temperature - 1000°C
Hardness – up to HRC 90
CeramicsMost common ceramic materials are aluminum oxide and silicon nitride. Powder of ceramic material Compacted in insert shape, then sintered at high temperature. Ceramic tools are chemically inert and possess resistance to corrosion. They have high compressive strength. They are stable up to temperature 1800°C. They are ten times faster than HSS. The friction between the tool face and chip are very low and possess low heat conductivity, usually no coolant is required. They provide the very excellent surface finish.
Cutting speed 300-600m/min
Temperature - 1200°C
Hardness – up to HRC 93
Cubic boron nitride (CBN)It is the second hardest material after diamond. They are generally used in hand machines. They offer high resistance to abrasion and use as an abrasive in grinding wheels. Sharp edges are not recommended.
Hardness - higher than HRC 95
|Hot hardness of cutting tool material|