What Is Cutting Tools? An Introduction

The purpose of cutting tool is the controlled removal of metal or material from the workpiece. A cutting tool exerts a compressive force on the material to be cut, which stresses the material beyond its yield point. Plastically deformed metal then shear off. The localized places where the plastic flow takes place known as a shear plane.
Example: saw, broaches, drill bit, fly cutter, etc.

The efficiency of cutting depends on
  • Hardness of tool and workpiece
  • Forces applied to workpiece
  • Tool geometry
The sharpness of tools also has an influence on efficiency. The sharp edges help to minimize the friction contact between the tool and workpiece. During machining, cutting tool undergoes very high forces and temperature gradient. Therefore, tool materials should be selected carefully.

The cutting tools are broadly classified into

According to the number of active cutting edge
Single point tool - Have one active cutting edge; used in planning, shaping, turning, etc.
Multipoint tool - Multiple active cutting edges - used in milling, drilling, etc.

According to the motion of cutting tool
Linear cutting tools – Example: tool bits, broaches
Rotary tools – Example: drills, milling cutter, reamers, countersink, etc.

They further classified based on geometry, material and clamping method.

- Different types of cutting tools materials and their properties
- Desirable characteristics of cutting tool material

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