What Is Turbine? Basic Working Principle of Turbine


Turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extract the potential energy and Kinetic energy of fluids and convert into mechanical energy. It is a prime mover which transform the energy of working fluid in to mechanical energy of turbine shaft. The shaft is then drive other mechanism through reducing gears to get useful work.

The basic construction of turbine has a rotor, which is shaft/ drum with blades attached on it. A casing enclose to rotor, and it contain as well as controls the flow fluid (turbine like Pelton wheels, wind turbine has no casing for directing the fluid). The working fluid may be gas, steam or liquid. When the fluid directed to the rotor by nozzles, due shapes of blades, fluid imparts momentum/ a rotational energy to the rotor. The rotational energy of shaft is then used to do useful work. For example the turbine is combined with generator to produce electrical energy in steam power plant. Turbine has wide application in many fields of industry, transportation, power generation. It also use as prime mover to drive pumps, compressors. The early example for turbine are windmill, waterwheel etc.

🔗Difference between Impulse a Reaction turbine

Note all pressure energy and kinetic energy of fluid get absorbed by the turbine, large portion of this energy leaves the turbine wheel fluid leaving the blades. This energy loss known as carry over loss, leaving loss. Turbines are compounded to increase efficiency and reduce this carry over loss.

According to different factors, there are different types of turbine. The turbines are compounded to reduce carry over loss and increase the overall efficiency.


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