Difference between CNC and DNC - Advantage and Functions of DNC

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CNC denotes a computer numerical control system, a mode of automation of machine tools that uses a dedicated microprocessor or computer to execute preprogrammed sequence machine control commands.

DNC (Direct Numerical control/ distributed numerical control) denotes the networking of CNC machines. It uses a large mainframe or computer to control a number of NC machines. The program is done externally then sent to individual machines.
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Difference between CNC and DNC

In CNC, remote controlling of operation is not possible.
DNC facilitate the remote control.

CNC is an integral part of the machine.
DNC is not integral to machines, DNC computer can locate at a distance from machines.

CNC transferring machining instruction.
DNC manage the information distribution to the number of machines.

CNC computer control one NC machine.
Using DNC programmer can control more than one NC machine as required.

CNC have low processing power when compared to DNC
DNC have high processing power when compared to CNC

CNC software is to increase the capability of the particular machine tool.
DNC not only control the equipment but also serve as a part of management information system.

Advantage and Functions of DNC

  • DNC eliminate punched tape and tape reader.
  • Storing NC part program - preparation of NC part program. In some CNC machine or machining process, the memory available for machining program is too small. In such case, DNC stores the machining program on a separate computer and send it to the machine one block at a time.
  • Data collection, processing, and reporting - Help to monitor the production, reporting performance. Production planning and scheduling become easier. Monitor the health of the machine by using sensors; it helpful in preventive maintenance.
  • Communication between the NC Machine and central computer. Two-way information flow in real time.
  • Greater computational capacity and ability of flexibility. Frequent modification of program is possible


Components of DNC

  1. Central computer
  2. Bulk memory for storing programs
  3. Communication network
  4. NC machine

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